QRCA – World’s Largest Association of Qualitative Researchers – QRCA Views Magazine

The Critical Need to Read in Qualitative Research BODY L ANGUAGE VOLUME 22 • NUMBER 1 FALL 2022 T RENDS Research After ResTech: How Emerging Research Technologies Will Challenge and Change What We Do T OO L BOX Why Is It So Hard to Rest? QRCA Emeriti Inspire Social Progress with Qualitative Techniques DEAR EMER I T US

FALL 2022 TABLE OF CONTENTS SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT: Veteran moderator and body language expert David M. Schneer, PhD, shares examples of qualitative research engagements in which participants said one thing verbally but expressed something completely different with their body language, and how he uncovered what they really thought. DEAR EMERITUS: QRCA Emeritus members share recommendations for utilizing qualitative research skills for social good and civil discourse. TOOLBOX: This article explores the benefits of rest and provides strategies for incorporating more rest into your days, even when you are rest-resistant or rest-averse, ultimately providing for better health and greater productivity. By Isabeau Iqbal The Critical Need to Read Body Language in Qualitative Research QRCA Emeriti Inspire Social Progress with Qualitative Techniques 36 Why Is It So Hard to Rest? 44 28 TRENDS: ResTech industry leader Dave Kaye talks about the implications of emerging technologies for the future of research agencies and how they deliver services. 12 QRCA is a global network of qualitative research professionals, including market research, UX, CX, sociologists, ethnographers, linguists, social media and other qualitative experts, and the resource for elevating qualitative research expertise at all levels, where members network and share best practices, trends and technology, and take advantage of unique educational content. For more information about QRCA and joining, check out www.qrca.org. Research After How Emerging Research Technologies Will Challenge and Change What We Do ResTech: 4 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING.

FALL 2022 TABLE OF CONTENTS 57 FOUR NEW BOOK REVIEWS Annie Murphy Paul’s The Extended Mind: The Power of Thinking Outside the Brain teaches us how to use our bodies, the physical spaces we inhabit, and the people we surround ourselves with to simply think better. Reviewed by Oana Popa Rengle Atlas of the Heart: Mapping Meaningful Connection and the Language of Human Experience, by Brené Brown, discusses language and emotions and how they can be used to create meaningful connections. Reviewed by Brandale Mills Cox A facilitator and coach uses the context of a plane ride to share how Rethinking Users: How a Detailed Look at User Archetypes Can Change Your Outlook on EcoSystems, by Michael Youngblood and Benjamin J. Chesluk, expands the reader’s view of user design. Reviewed by Paula Rosecky The Fire Starter: Igniting Innovation with Empathy, by April Bell, explores how companies can bridge the gap between knowing that empathy is important for innovation and what they can do to apply empathy in their innovation processes. Reviewed by Mike Carlon 8 FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 9 HUMOR 10 FROM THE PRESIDENT 11 INDEX OF ADVERTISERS 51 QRCA PODCASTS Mike Carlon interviews Wendy Pease, president and owner of Rapport International, on her book, The Language of Global Marketing: Translate Your Domestic Strategies into International Sales and Profits. QRCA USABILITY TESTING WITH CORNER STORE OWNERS IN PAKISTAN: A HOW-TO (AND HOW-NOT-TO) GUIDE 18 GLOBAL: How do you prepare yourself for field-testing digital products with low literacy and novice technology users? This case study provides tips galore for usability testing, even with challenging audiences and markets. By Usama Waheed UNCORKING THEIR STORIES: WHAT I’VE LEARNED FROM INTERVIEWING AUTHORS 34 TOOLBOX: Podcaster and Moderator Mike Carlon has identified five traits that successful authors and qualitative researchers have in common. CONFIDENTIALITY MATTERS: QUALITATIVE BEST PRACTICES 40 BUSINESS MATTERS: A lawyer/compliance officer shares ways to keep respondents’ (and clients’) identities confidential, while abiding by privacy laws and best practices. By Dr. Jessica Santos PUSHING THE RESET BUTTON ON BUSINESS TRIPS 24 TRAVELWISE: A seasoned market researcher reflects on the benefits she gained from breaking out of her normal business travel routine and building in a downtime recharge into her travels. By Susen Dunmire THE LONG AND WINDING ROAD: KATHRYN CAMPBELL ON THE JOURNEY TO POSITIONING YOURSELF AND AN INSIGHTS CENTER OF EXCELLENCE 52 LUMINARIES: A conversation with Kathryn Campbell, head of Global Integrity Research at Instagram, about why silos tend to exist across research functions within an organization, and how researchers can unite them to create organizational change. By Zoë Billington Global Research: Oana Popa Rengle oana@anamnesis.ro Book Reviews: Susan Fader susanfader@faderfocus.com EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Tamara Kenworthy tamara@on-pointstrategies.com Trends: Sebastian Murdoch-Gibson sebastian@qualrecruit.com Podcasts: Mike Carlon michael.carlon@uncorkingastory.com Travelwise: Ashley Paulson ashleypaulson10@gmail.com Industry Focus Tom Neveril tom@storybrandconsulting.com Luminaries: Zoë Billington zbillington@gmail.com Business Matters: Mark Wheeler mark@wheelerresearch.com MANAGING EDITOR: Karen Lynch karen@karenlynch.com Toolbox: Pamela Batzel pbatzel@finchandthefrog.com Toolbox: Natalia Infante Caylor natalia@holainsights.com Dear Emeritus: Frankie Lipinski frankie.lipinski@aspenfinn.com MANAGING EDITOR: Susan Fader susanfader@faderfocus.com Schools of Thought: Karen Lynch karen@karenlynch.com Proofreading: Quinne Fokes qfokes@gmail.com Digital Editor: Frankie Lipinski frankie.lipinski@aspenfinn.com STAFF EDITOR: Laurie Pumper lauriep@ewald.com 6 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING.

Dedicating this Issue to Joel Reish— Humor Feature Editor and Past Editor-in-Chief A recent research study from Oracle and author-podcaster Gretchen Rubin, The Happiness Report, found that 91 percent of people prefer brands to be funny and 72 percent would choose a brand that uses humor over the competition. However, 95 percent of business leaders fear using humor in customer interactions. Progressive Insurance certainly doesn’t fall into these statistics—some of my favorite advertising. We’ve also never been afraid to use humor in VIEWS as a special feature of the magazine, but we have missed it the past few issues as our Humor Feature Editor Joel Reish battled cancer. Humor turned to sadness for our VIEWS team as Joel lost his courageous battle to cancer on June 21, 2022, at the young age of 62, and I’m dedicating this issue in his honor. Joel was a long-time dedicated QRCA member, past QRCA Board president, and past VIEWS editor-in-chief. The next page features some of my favorite cartoons that Joel created over the many years in his role of creating humor. I was always amazed each issue with his creativity as it takes a special talent to come up with these ideas and have them illustrated. Joel, rest in peace! Not only do we need humor in our lives, but we also need to ensure work-life balance for a healthy lifestyle. In this issue, we have two articles that focus on our well-being as we work in a high-pressure industry and come out of the COVID-19 pandemic. One is a Toolbox article helping us understand why it’s so hard for us to rest and how to overcome this resistance for health benefits. The other takes us on the road in Travelwise as we learn how to recharge our batteries while traveling on research trips. In Schools of Thought, we have a great article on why it’s so important to read body language in qualitative research—what people say verbally and through body language oftentimes is not the same. In our second Toolbox article, podcast editor and researcher Mike Carlon explores what authors and qualitative researchers have in common from his many podcast interviews with published authors. Our Trends column explores research after ResTech and how emerging technologies will challenge us in how we do our work and run our businesses. Speaking of technology, usability testing is featured in the Global column as it takes us to Pakistan and a case study on corner store owners using digital tech with a challenging audience/market. Speaking of global, Podcasts Editor Mike Carlon interviews Wendy Pease on her new book, The Language of Global Marketing. Our Luminaries column features Kathryn Campbell, who heads up Global Integrity Research at Instagram, with a really interesting interview on her career journey in UX research and consumer insights. Then, with a lens focused on Business Matters, Dr. Jessica Santos continues sharing her expertise in the privacy arena, this issue featuring why confidentiality is so critical in research projects. Our sage Emeritus members offer their insights in the Dear Emeritus column on how qualitative skills can be used for social good and civil discourse; certainly, a much-needed skill in our society today. Finally, our myriad Book Reviews offer so many great titles—be sure to check them out and set a goal of reading at least one from each issue. Please share this fall issue (qrcaviews.org) with your network, post the digital flipbook link on social media, and email your clients an interesting article relevant to them. Lastly, we love feedback—please let me know if you have ideas or thoughts on VIEWS. Happy reading! Until the next issue, Tamara Kenworthy Tamara Kenworthy Editor-in-Chief QRCA VIEWS Magazine On Point Strategies Des Moines, Iowa tamara@on-pointstrategies.com 8 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING. n FROM THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF n

n HUMOR n Our VIEWS team lost a talented and long-time dedicated member to cancer in June, Joel Reish. I’ve dedicated this issue to Joel in recognition of his service to QRCA VIEWS as a past Editor-inChief and Humor Feature Editor, and his talent for conceptualizing the cartoons we showcased in each issue for many years. This page shares some of my favorites! We plan to bring back the Humor special feature and run one of Joel’s cartoons in each issue. I laugh every time—no matter how many times I’ve seen them—laughter is SO important to our mental health. Joel, thanks for helping us take time to laugh! Rest in peace! —Tamara Kenworthy, VIEWS Editor-in-Chief Joel Reish REMEMBERING AND HIS HUMOROUS CREATIVITY www.qrca.org FALL 2022 QRCA VIEWS 9

Hello Members, Welcome to the third quarter of 2022! COVID-19 appears to be headed toward our rearview mirrors. We’ve changed and adapted our attitudes and behavior to the new and constantly evolving normal. H.G. Wells is quoted as saying, “Adapt or perish, now as ever is nature’s inexorable imperative.” Who was Herbert George Wells and why does he matter? He was an Englishman who wrote a few classic sci-fi page-turners you may be familiar with, such as The Time Machine (1895), The Invisible Man (1897), and The War of the Worlds (1898). As H.G. Wells surmised during his time, I believe QRCA must learn to adapt quickly to this new landscape—as it evolves—lest we invite our own demise. He was prescient for his time, anticipating events like war and nuclear bombs. But who could have anticipated the unleashing of nature’s COVID-19 virus and its impact? Combined with other global and planetary events, we are being forced to re-orient our attitudes and behaviors. This reorientation has spurred waves of qualitative research to explore what it means today and in the future. QRCA has become more relevant than ever! Before new leadership ascends, it's probably a good time to take stock of where we’ve been, as well as look toward the future—to adapt accordingly. Just as Elon Musk with SpaceX and Jeff Bezos with Blue Origin are charting new courses beyond Planet Earth, so too should QRCA consider and stretch itself as a professional organization to lead the way forward for the benefit of its membership and the industry as a whole. It's no secret that qualitative research is experiencing a global boom in demand whether UX, CX, MRX, etc. The future has never looked brighter; QRCA never more resilient. Our end goal is to ensure QRCA is the #1 hub for all things qualitative. While our past focused more on conducting in-person research, our future is harnessing available technology to meet our respondents, as well as members where you are, by providing more networking, upskilling, mentoring, and business development that increases member benefit value. To address these emerging industry and member needs, QRCA is successfully partnering with the RIVA Training Institute and Burke Institute to deliver more up-to-date and relevant content to members. In the meantime, Qualology—QRCA’s learning hub—over the past year has created courses on privacy and creativity, and continues to provide more relevant learning led by industry experts. This year’s annual conference in San Diego was extremely well received by 200+ attendees, all focused on Reimagining, Rethinking, and Rediscovering qualitative research to better understand our evolution. Recordings of various sessions are now available on Qualology. Next year’s conference in Charlotte promises to be filled with even more future-forward content, interactive sessions, and connection opportunities. QRCA’s Inclusive Culture Committee established a new annual scholarship, the Lloyd J. Harris Scholarship, to specifically address the educational needs of underrepresented researchers. The organization has also awarded deserving Young Professionals and Global Researchers. These are but a few of the initiatives that volunteer leadership—Committee, SIG, Chapter, and Special Task Force leaders along with Board members—have executed in the past 12 months. In recognition of their efforts, in our Connections newsletter and on LinkedIn, QRCA thanks each month extraordinary volunteers whose contributions have elevated member experiences. Thanks also to the extensive work of various specially appointed task forces that conducted management, website, code of conduct, and communication audits to find new ways to improve user experience. As I complete my term as QRCA President, I am humbled, honored, and grateful for the opportunity to lead the organization—to help navigate and successfully adapt to the churning “change” waters we’re in. I now pass the Presidential baton to my successor, Michael Mermelstein, who will have the honor and privilege of serving you. Borrowing the words of NASA mission control when John Glenn took off in that 1962 Friendship 7 capsule on the first manned orbital space flight… Godspeed to you, Michael, and to the newly elected Board members. Best regards, Roben Allong Roben Allong Lightbeam Communications (M/WBE) New York, New York robena@lightbeamnyc.com 10 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING. n FROM THE PRESIDENT n

QRCA 2021–2022 OFFICERS AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS Roben Allong President Michael Mermelstein Vice President Anya Zadrozny Treasurer Susan Fader Secretary Farnaz Badie Director Pam Goldfarb-Liss Director Corette Haf Director Cynthia Harris Director Lauren Isaacson Director QRCA is dedicated to advancing the impact of qualitative research and all who practice it. The statements and opinions expressed herein are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the association, its staff, or its board of directors, QRCA VIEWS, or its editors. Likewise, the appearance of advertisers, or QRCA members, does not constitute an endorsement of the products or services featured in this, past, or subsequent issues of this quarterly publication. Copyright ©2021-2022 by QRCA. QRCA VIEWS is published quarterly. Subscriptions are complimentary to members of QRCA and are available to research buyers upon request. Presort standard postage is paid at Fulton, MO. Printed in the U.S.A. Reprints and Submissions: QRCA VIEWS allows reprinting of material published here, upon request. Permission requests should be directed to QRCA. We are not responsible for unsolicited freelance manuscripts and photographs. Contact the editor-in-chief for contribution information. Any views or opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of E&M Consulting, Inc., publishers. Advertising: For display and classified advertising rates and insertions, please contact E&M Consulting, Inc., 1107 Hazeltine Boulevard, Suite #350, Chaska, MN 55318. Phone (800) 572-0011, Fax (952) 448-9928. Ad deadline is October 5, 2022. 1000 Westgate Drive, Suite #252 St. Paul, MN 55114 USA Civicom Marketing Research Services..... BC www.civicommrs.com 203.413.2423 Fieldwork. ....................................................... 3 www.fieldwork.com 800.863.4353 InsideHeads LLC. ........................................... 7 www.insideheads.com 877.IN.HEADS IVP Research Labs........................................2 www.ivpresearchlabs.com 732.970.9446 Market-Ease . ...............................................38 www.market-ease.com 312.654.9910 Murray Hill National....................................16 www.murrayhillnational.com 972.707.7645 Paramount Market Publishing, Inc. ........38 www.paramountbooks.com 607.275.8100 Precision Research. ....................................17 www.preres.com 847.390.8666 RIVA..................................................................5 www.rivainc.com 301.770.6456 THANK YOU TO OUR VIEWS ADVERTISERS Tel (toll free in N. America): 888-ORG-QRCA (888-674-7722) Phone: 651-290-7491 Fax: 651-290-2266 Email: info@qrca.org www.qrca.org n INDEX OF ADVERTISERS n The Critical Need to Read in Qualitative Research BODY L ANGUAGE VOLUME 22 • NUMBER 1 FALL 2022 TRENDS Research After ResTech: How Emerging Research Technologies Will Challenge and Change What We Do TOOLBOX Why Is It So Hard to Rest? QRCA Emeriti Inspire Social Progress with Qualitative Techniques DEAR EMERI TUS Get a Subscription to QRCA’s VIEWS Magazine The QRCA VIEWS magazine is mailed to all QRCA members (except for Graduate Student Members), as well as to a select group of research buyers. VIEWS is available to everyone with an interest in any type of qualitative research—including UX, ethnography, academia, in-house research, support services, and more. To sign up for a digital subscription, visit www.qrca.org/page/views_ subscription or contact lauriep@qrca.org. To become a QRCA member and reap all the benefits of belonging to the global association of the most innovative, collaborative, and passionate research professionals dedicated to uncovering actionable insights, visit www.qrca.org/page/join_qrca. www.qrca.org FALL 2022 QRCA VIEWS 11

12 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING. n SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT n

What Interview Were You Watching? Not long ago, I interviewed a respondent to whom I showed a rough concept for a new product. As soon as I presented the concept, I noticed her body language was screaming that the concept did not resonate. There were several tells: •  Her arms were folded. While this is often a misunderstood body language position, in this case her arms were folded and stiff, and her fingers were pressing into her biceps, indicating stress. •  She was leaning back. Instinctively, we lean away from things we dislike and lean into things that we prefer. •  Her feet were pointing toward the door. The feet are the most honest part of the body, as they are always pointed where the body wants to go (Navarro 2008, 76). This is why we recommend focus group facilities (or negotiators) use glass tables so the lower extremities can be viewed. We also recommend swivel chairs to help accentuate body movement. Communication contradictions: whether we realize it or not, we’ve all experienced them in some form or another. What do I mean? A customer expresses delirious interest in your proposal, but you never hear from them again. A job applicant confidently expresses their ability to fulfill a role, but two weeks into the job it’s clear they are unqualified, perhaps even toxic. A research participant has a positive verbal reaction to a new product concept, but their body language is not quite so convincing. The Critical Need to Read in Qualitative Research BODY L ANGUAGE By David M. Schneer, PhD, CEO n Merrill Research and The Merrill Institute for Nonverbal Intelligence n Pleasanton, California n dschneer@merrillresearch.com 13 www.qrca.org FALL 2022 QRCA VIEWS

•  One corner of her mouth quickly moved up, ever so slightly. This is clearly a sign of contempt, which can either indicate dislike or a feeling of superiority. In this case, an element of the concept rubbed her the wrong way. •  A wayward index finger began to tap to an unknown beat. Our digits have a language all their own. This was a clear indication that she was frustrated and ready to move on. •  She began to pick lint on her blazer, but there was no lint. This is a form of contempt, where she was essentially saying that she would rather pick imaginary lint off her jacket than tell me she disliked the concept. “So,” I asked her, “tell me, what do you think?” “Oh, I like it,” she replied. “I’d buy it. Certainly.” But that’s not what her body said. The unspoken signals I picked up suggested her reaction was not quite as rosy as her verbal feedback suggested. Eventually, I was able to determine what it was that bothered her about the concept, and it turned out to be valuable feedback. After thanking her for her opinions, I hustled back to the observation room where the clients were huddled in the dark with glowing laptop screens. “She loved it!” one client exclaimed, high-fiving the other. “Killed it!” yelled the other. I looked at them the way a dog sometimes does when it is trying to understand what its master just said: head cocked, one ear up, and one ear down. I thought to myself, “What interview were you watching?” That was when I advised my client to watch what participants do and not only listen to what they say. The concept just did not resonate with this respondent, and there were good reasons for that. Lying: Ubiquitous but Not Always Sinister Why would a person say one thing when their body language suggests something else? It is estimated that we hear as many as several hundred lies per day. Paul Eckman writes in his seminal book on lying, Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Politics, and Marriage (Revised Edition), “Lies occur between friends (even your best friend won’t tell you), teacher and student, doctor and patient, husband and wife, witness and jury, lawyer and client, salesperson and customer.” Let’s get this straight. There is no Pinocchio effect! (Navarro 2008, 230). The foremost global experts on lying all agree that there is no single sign that someone is fibbing (cf. DePaulo, Eckman, Ford, Frank, Freisen, Hartwig, Hwang, Levine, Matsumoto, Navarro, Skinner). Anyone who tells you otherwise is likely lying, and because liars lie about lying (John 8:44 NASB), it’s hard to know what to believe. Moreover, the major worldviews— Islam, Judaism, Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Western Christianity—all denounce lying, albeit the Jewish tradition has exceptions for keeping the peace, protection against theft and harm, or for the sake of decency and/or humility (Friedman, Weisel 2003, 8). Lying is not only an abomination and hard to detect, but it is ubiquitous, too (Navarro 2008, 208). But how does lying really work? A closer look yields that lying is used for social survival (Navarro 2008, 208), and it’s used quite often. “She’s not home” (sure she is, she’s sitting right next to you). “I already donated” (no, you didn’t). “I’m not available” (you could go, but you don’t really want to). “I love it” (it’s the same tie you gifted me last year). That’s right, to avoid rocking the social boat unnecessarily, we lie. But it gets worse. Not only are lies shunned, omnipresent, and elusive, numerous studies prove definitively that we humans are very poor lie detectors. Enter Timothy B. Levine’s Duped and the Truth Default Theory (TDT). We humans 14 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING. The Critical Need to Read Body Language in Qualitative Research CONT INUED

are “hardwired” for the benefit of the doubt (Levine, 2020, 14). Moreover, the TDT posits that most of the time most people tell the truth unless there is some detrimental consequence to being honest. Then people will lie. (Levine 2020, 246–247). Furthermore, most lies are not caught in real time (Levine 2020, 244). According to Levine, truth engenders trust, and trust greases the wheels of social harmony. Thus, we lean toward belief for the sake of social cohesion. But what about that swirl of deception around us? The TDT accounts for that, stating that the most destructive lies are told by a few prolific liars with catastrophic consequences (Levine 2020, 247). Think Bernie Madoff—the convicted Ponzischeme mastermind. His lies were not the “I-gave-at-the-office” type. They were sociopathic lies, devastating to those who believed them. So, you think to yourself, okay . . . lying is shunned, hard to catch in real time, exists everywhere, and woven into the social fabric. Why bother? Rather, one should focus on whether someone is comfortable or uncomfortable with what you are saying or what is coming out of their own mouth. Why? The same behaviors and gestures that make us look guilty are also the ones we exhibit when we are uncomfortable. Want the Truth? Just BLINK Here’s another research study where we employed a technique to help foster emotions. The technique I used was called BLINK: Body Language Intuition Numinology Know-How. We emote faster than we think, which is exactly why the BLINK technique is so powerful. The basic premise of this technique is that instead of asking someone a question and waiting for their reply, you posit a supposition and watch the reaction on their face. That is, did they show signs of disgust, contempt, happiness, fear, sadness, anger, or surprise—or no emotion at all? This technique takes advantage of the fact that we think slower than we emote. Our emotions are controlled by the limbic system—the part of the brain typically referred to as the “frog brain” or “reptilian brain.” Ask a person a question, and wait for them to formulate an answer. Use the BLINK technique, and watch the answer flash across their face without them even knowing it. Using the BLINK Technique in Real-Life Settings At the Merrill Institute, I used the BLINK technique in a qualitative channel study among Value Added Resellers (VARs), and the technique yielded jaw-dropping results. Back to that in a minute. First, let’s understand the target audience in this study. These VARs resold computer software, hardware, and networking products to small- and medium-sized companies, providing value beyond order fulfillment. I talked with VARs in New York City during a series of hour-long in-person interviews. The objective of the study was to understand the needs of VARs selling their devices. What kind of support would they require? Better pricing and margins? Lead generation support? Market development funds? What would be the ideal channel plan? After asking a variety of questions regarding channel needs, we turned our attention to the major brands in the space. “So,” I asked one of the VARs, “would it matter to you who the manufacturer is behind this channel plan?” “Yes,” he replied, and before he could say anything else, I interjected the following presupposition—“Suppose I told you that the manufacturer behind this plan is Brand X.” In an instant the VAR flashed a half smile of contempt, a quick sign of fear, and then a sure sign of disgust, but then he said, “Brand X would be fine.” I could sense something was amiss. “You know,” I said to him, “I’m sensing that there’s more to the story about Brand X.” He looked at me and said, “Brand X is fine from the perspective of customer awareness. Everyone knows Brand X, but I’ll never do business with them again after they went around my back directly to my clients.” We later learned that this VAR had registered a sizeable deal (over 50 devices) with Brand X—only to find Experienced and new moderators wi l l often miss the subtle and sometimes not-so-subtle signs about what a person is real ly saying—paying too much attention to the spoken word and not enough to nonverbal cues. 15 www.qrca.org FALL 2022 QRCA VIEWS

out later that Brand X tried to cut him out of the deal by going directly to VAR’s customer. The lesson? Deal registration and no channel conflict are sacred! We might have missed that had we not employed the BLINK technique. This is just one of the many instances where the BLINK technique can be used. Another example: an HR executive could quickly assess whether a job candidate is less than forthcoming about their previous work experiences just by looking at their reactions. Experienced and new moderators—and client observers—will often miss the subtle and sometimes not-so-subtle signs about what a person is really saying, paying too much attention to the spoken word and not enough to nonverbal cues. We founded the Merrill Institute for Body Language Training for this reason—so everyone involved in qualitative research can become a body language expert. References: •  Ekman, Paul. Telling lies: Clues to deceit in the marketplace, politics, and marriage. New York: W. W. Norton & Co, 2009 •  John 8:44 NASB: “You are of your father the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. Whenever he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own nature; for he is a liar, and the father of lies.” •  Friedman, Weisel, Jewish Law. “Should Moral Individuals Ever Lie? Insights from Jewish Law,” 2003 (p 8). •  Hartwig, Maria. “Telling Lies: Fact, Fiction, and Nonsense, by Maria Hartwig: Should you believe Paul Ekman, world’s most famous deception researcher?”, Psychology Today, (2014): 15 •  Navarro, Joe, and Marvin Karlins. Essay. In What Every BODY Is Saying: an Ex-FBI Agent’s Guide to Speed-Reading People. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2015 •  Timothy R. Levine. Duped. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 2020 •  Matsumoto, David, PhD, Hyi Sung Hwang, PhD, San Francisco State University and Humintell, LLC, Lisa Skinner, JD, SSA, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Mark G. Frank, PhD, “Evaluating Truthfulness and Detecting Deception and New Tools to Aid Investigators,” University at Buffalo, State University of New York. In press, Page 2, U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 16 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING. The Critical Need to Read Body Language in Qualitative Research CONT INUED

n GLOBAL n USABILITY TESTING WITH CORNER STORE OWNERS IN A HOW-TO (AND HOW-NOT-TO) GUIDE PAKISTAN 18 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING.

This burgeoning digital ecosystem requires the development of apps that the local population can understand and use. A population with low literacy rates presents a development challenge. While the local Pakistani teams building these products have education levels and skill sets comparable to those in Silicon Valley, much of their audience is relatively new to the online experience. Within this context, it is critical to avoid the mistake of assuming that Western design principles will translate easily to a segment that can barely read English—and sometimes cannot read at all. So, how do you ensure that, in this market, your app will make sense to your users? Enter Usability Testing I like to think of usability testing as an interview with a prop. The prop is the app you are testing, and the usual guidelines of interviewing apply. In a usability test, you present the app (or website) to a participant and ask them to complete a set of tasks, such as finding the customer support number or filtering search results. As they go about the task, you observe where they get stuck, what confuses them, and whether the interface and words are comprehended as intended. Resources on how to conduct usability tests are plentiful with Steve Krug’s Rocket Surgery Made Easy being an excellent starting point for markets with a high penetration of app-savvy users. But when testing with novice users out in the field, many of those assumptions and methods go out the window. Here, there are no comfortable offices, no calendars to send invites to, and no sophisticated multicamera recording setups. So, you have to learn to adapt to the nuances of this environment. My design agency focuses on researching and testing digital products Pakistan is at the forefront of a digital revolution. With the sizable Indian and Indonesian markets becoming increasingly saturated with funding dollars, investors are starting to turn their attention toward the world’s fifth-most populous country. In 2021, Pakistani start-ups in the digital space raised $300 million— which was more than in the previous six years combined.1 By Usama Waheed n Co-founder, dli5 n 2022 QRCA Global Qualitative Researchers’ Award Recipient n Lahore, Pakistan n usama@dli5.com n Twitter: @designlikeim5 n LinkedIn: www.linked in.com/in/usama-waheed LAHORE www.qrca.org FALL 2022 QRCA VIEWS 19

with low-literacy and novice users. For a recent project, we had to design a digital microlending app for corner store owners to help them order inventory with a buy now, pay later model. The app helps ease cash flow problems by paying for the stores’ inventory orders and allowing them to pay the company back over a period of three months. To execute the design research for this app, we conducted three rounds of usability tests with about three to five users in each round. Between each round, we would go back to redesign elements of the app and present the new iteration to the next set of participants. Based on my experiences, I developed the following pointers for conducting effective usability tests with low literacy and/or novice technology users. 1. Language Barriers While literacy may be low with this Pakistani market, many tend to be bilingual; if you include regional dialects, there can be conversations where several languages are being spoken and understood simultaneously. The variations in language and dialect make it harder to establish rapport and keep the conversation flowing. Even if you can understand the other person perfectly well in conversation, the nuance is sometimes lost under the constraints of having to speak a common dialect that neither the interviewer nor the interviewee is comfortable with. Another challenge with usability testing in this environment is that some words simply do not exist in some languages. For example, “log out” in English has no direct translation in Urdu (the national language of Pakistan). So, most translated apps will retain “log out” in their designs, but it will be written in the Urdu script. For someone who is interacting with digital products for the first time, “log out” will make no intuitive sense until they are told what it does. As a result, testing the copywriting language used in the app takes on increased importance. Then there is the issue of translating words on the fly. As any bilingual person will attest, when you are thinking in one language but speaking in another, you will often run into mental blocks where you simply cannot translate the thought well enough to convey exactly what you mean. To overcome this, I have found it helps to translate your questions and key terms beforehand. Even if you know in your head what the question means, the flow of the conversation may be disrupted (and you may be perceived as an outsider) if you cannot find the right words at the right moment. 2. Note-taking When conducting usability tests in the field, it is useful to record the interview, It can be chal lenging in information-dense sessions, where you have to keep your eyes on the screen to understand the participant’s interaction with the device, whi le also taking notes by hand, and conversing in multiple languages/dialects. I find it best not to take notes at al l during tests; and instead, be ful ly immersed in what is happening. 20 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING. Usability Testing with Corner Store Owners in Pakistan CONT INUED

so you can refer back to it in the office. But, in my testing experience, low- literacy users are often hesitant to provide consent for recording. Even when anonymity is assured, and the topic of conversation is benign, there seems to be inherent suspicion about anything being recorded. So, when recording the session is not an option, you have to rely on good old pen and paper to take notes. But that presents its own set of problems. In these situations, a usability test tends to work best when there is one person leading the test and explaining tasks, while the other is observing and taking notes. But, in cramped stores and noisy outdoor spaces, there is often not enough space for two people, let alone three. For people who are already not comfortable with technology, it is also intimidating to have multiple onlookers while they struggle with a task. Therefore, to avoid embarrassment of not being able to complete the task, it is not uncommon for participants to dismiss the problems they are having and say, “I will figure this out later on my own.” Hence, some tests must be done with just one tester (me), who also must simultaneously take notes. This can prove to be challenging in information-dense sessions where you have to keep your eyes on the screen to understand the participant’s interaction with the device, while also taking notes by hand and conversing in multiple languages/dialects. In these situations, I find it best not to take notes at all during tests; and instead, be fully immersed in what is happening—although I do refer to my interview guide. Then, immediately at the end of the test, I will record a quick voice memo of my thoughts and listen back at the end of the day to elaborate on them. For longer tests, it helps to make one- or two-word notes as the test goes on, by way of a checkpoint reference to come back to and expand upon later. 3. Scheduling and Time Management In a world of smartphones, emails, and calendar apps, scheduling interviews with participants is relatively painless. But, when your participants come from segments that do not have these luxuries, scheduling and time management become a lot harder. When we set out to do our first round of testing, I planned to conduct guerrilla research by walking into corner stores and politely asking the owners for five minutes of their time. That did not work. The problem was not that they did not have five minutes to spare. Most were happy, even excited to help. But because they were often the only person running the store, there were frequent interruptions as customers came in and needed assistance. It was important that the product was tested in its natural context, so I could not ask them to come to our office either; and, in any case, they could not abandon their storefronts for that long. Eventually, I had to scrap most of our first round of testing because the participants simply could not focus on carrying the conversation for more than a few minutes at a time. I tried again by scheduling 30 minutes with them in advance, at a time of their choosing, and making the incentives for participating clearer and up front. But even then, there were issues with availability. Sometimes the store owners would simply forget; other times the unpredictable nature of their workday meant they were just not available for an uninterrupted stretch of 30 minutes. But from this frustration came an important user experience learning— we realized that we had to design for interruption. So, we incorporated elements in the app that gave high-level information at a glance and made completing tasks faster. www.qrca.org FALL 2022 QRCA VIEWS 21

While the app we were testing was highly context-dependent, this may not be true for apps targeted to low-literacy users who may have more downtime available. In other words, financial services demand more time and concentration compared to social media apps. 4. Choose Your Device Wisely To replicate the real-world experience of our users, we wanted to conduct our tests on a mobile device that could come close to what they used themselves, which in this case was a low-to-mid-range Android phone. So, we went out and bought an Android phone in the low-end price bracket. But there were two problems. First, these phones did not have enough memory (RAM) for us to do the testing. While the actual, developed app would have run just fine on these phones, our testing was being conducted with prototypes that required significantly more memory to run smoothly. As a result, the prototype tended to refresh (and interrupt the task) every few minutes. So, we ended up testing on a slightly higher-end device. This had its own challenges. First, users were already afraid of handling a device that was not their own—and now it looked premium too, adding to their hesitation. Second, we could not entirely replicate our users’ real-world experiences with our own devices. Regardless of which device we used, our shiny new device simply could not provide the same experience as a corner store owner’s smudgy, cracked display. This was not a trivial consideration given that a significant portion of our users had messy workspaces and, as a result, messy hands. Their phone displays were much more difficult to touch or read than our squeaky-clean device. I would recommend spending extra time doing research on which low-end phone will support your prototype; buying a battered, used phone may not be a bad idea either. 5. What to Say—and How to Say It When testing with low-literacy users, it is important to try and bridge the class divide, and this can manifest itself in unexpected ways. For starters, I noticed that many participants were eager to impress us with their knowledge of the app being tested. It is nice to give reassurances and nod along when this happens. But sometimes they would brush aside things that they did not know. As a usability researcher, it is precisely these parts of the app that provide the most valuable insights, so probing at these points is critical. In these situations, you will want to choose your words very carefully: ask politely if they can go back and explain why they are not able to do that task that they just skipped, but do not put them on the spot and make Naturally, introducing bias by priming participants to think negatively about the product is a concern. But…I think it is actually preferable to introduce this bias. By framing the product in a negative light, you get far more useful insights than being perfectly neutral. 22 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING. Usability Testing with Corner Store Owners in Pakistan CONT INUED

them feel incompetent—better to start off by asking why they “skipped” rather than why they “couldn’t do it.” Some participants tend to get defensive as well. I observed that sometimes when they struggled with a task, participants would try to convince us that they could figure it out later. Or, they would brush off the app as “easy” and consider it a personal affront that they were being “tested” on it—even when we made it clear that this was a test of the app, and not a test of their abilities. In these instances, where they were extremely defensive, I would consider that particular task a lost cause and quickly move on to the next one before the participant became too frustrated to continue. It is also a good idea to disassociate yourself from the app while testing. I stress the fact that I am from an independent company that has no relation to the app’s developers so that they know they can talk freely. This also helps avoid complaints about pricing and customer service, because it is not unusual for participants to initially mistake you for a company representative. Sometimes I go so far as to criticize the app myself before asking them about it. Naturally, this introduces bias by priming participants to think negatively about the product. But, given that the point of a usability test is to uncover flaws with the app, I think it is preferable to introduce this bias to them rather than them being defensive about articulating any problems they may have with the app. In these situations, with low literacy/ app newbies, I have found that framing the product in a negative light garners far more useful insights than when I’m perfectly neutral. Conclusion While I have shared my experiences here so that you may be better prepared for a similar project, the beauty and fun of researching in this segment is you keep getting thrown new curveballs. Even after several dozen interviews for a particular project, I never quite know what to expect for the next one, which keeps me on my toes and lays bare the utter folly of expecting to follow a script to the “T.” Lastly, I share the usual disclaimer that small samples are not always generalizable to the larger population— especially when you are building products to be used by tens of millions of people. But, with this type of testing, you don’t need a large sample to improve the product’s design—thus, the ultimate purpose of usability testing. References: 1. Bloomberg, “Funding of Pakistani Startups Crosses $300 Million This Year,” by Faseeh Mangi, Dec. 8, 2021. www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/ 2021-12-09/funding-of-pakistanistartups-crosses-300-million-this-year www.qrca.org FALL 2022 QRCA VIEWS 23

I don’t know about you, but for much of my career, traveling for in-person research looked a bit like this: •  Tightly packed schedules requiring travel to multiple cities, spanning several time zones within a week •  Long days of moderating, followed by brief evenings with barely enough time to grab a bite to eat before collapsing in bed to get some sleep before rising early to catch the next flight the following morning • Squeezing in analysis and report drafts wherever I could, which usually meant in an airport boarding gate area and on flights to the next city Pushing the Reset Button on Business Trips By Susen Dunmire n Senior Research Director n MarketVision Research n Cincinnati, Ohio n sdunmire@marketvisionresearch.com 24 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING. n TRAVELWISE n

By the time I reached the third city of the week, which usually was in a completely different time zone from where I started, I was short on sleep and pretty worn out, wondering how I would muster the mental and physical energy to manage another evening of moderating that would extend way past my normal bedtime. I usually started the week strong, with lots of mental and physical energy, well rested and refreshed, all ready for the challenge of a busy week. My mind was keenly focused while moderating in that first city. I had ample patience to skillfully guide a challenging respondent through detailed scientific stimuli and to tactfully and graciously respond to multiple client requests for additions and adjustments. When I finished the day in the first city, I felt a sense of accomplishment, satisfied with delivering high-quality research and feeling ready to head to the second city. Typically, research in the second city would also go pretty well, and my stamina was sustained throughout the day because the time difference was only an hour. However, in the evening hours I would start to notice my energy level beginning to fall and my mental sharpness starting to wane. I found myself grabbing another caffeine drink and a piece of chocolate to give me an added boost to finish up the last two interviews. It quickly became evident that my reserves from the previous weekend that had enabled me to have so much energy in the first city were depleted by the end of my day in the second city; and I still had another city to reach before the end of the week. By the time I got to the third city of the week, usually on the West Coast, I felt the fatigue of the week’s travel and the long days of research catching up with me as soon as I arrived at my hotel. I would have loved nothing more than to take the night off to get some extra rest before the final day of research. However, that time was usually spent analyzing the first two days of research and beginning to draft a topline that would be needed soon after research wrapped up in the third city. While I got some sleep that night in the third city, I was lacking deep rest and relaxation time, and I was without a complete mental break before beginning the third day of research. I always seemed to successfully manage in the last city, but it felt like a struggle, requiring more caffeine drinks and chocolate than I would normally have if I were just having a non-travel week. While traveling with a colleague a few years ago, she opened my eyes to the benefits, as well as the enjoyment, of seeking out something fun to do in each destination, with the emphasis being on finding something fun in the last destination of the week before the start of research. Not only did it completely change my mindset about business travel, but I also reaped the physical and mental benefits. Here’s the Story... Our week started out like so many others, conducting research on the East Coast, followed by the West Coast. Fortunately, we only had two cities to travel to that week, but the study was very complex and involved. It involved three 90-minute dyads with two physician segments in each city. During each session, we tested five advertising concepts and four promotional themes, along with their associated messages. The materials were designed to support an innovative cancer treatment and were fairly detailed and clinical. The stimuli were highly scientific and the research objectives were multilayered. I had to invest considerable upfront time and effort in order to digest the material and develop a plan to consistently accomplish the objectives in the allotted time. • Minimize intensive work on flights and use this as “recharge time.” • Get yourself outside to reinvigorate and re-energize. • Go for a walk in an enjoyable space. • Give yourself permission to take a break. • Intentionally plan a break in your schedule. Tips and Tricks for Pushing the Reset Button on Business Trips Whi le travel ing wi th a col league a few years ago, she opened my eyes to the benef i ts, as wel l as the enjoyment , of seeking out something fun to do in each dest inat ion. www.qrca.org FALL 2022 QRCA VIEWS 25

During the first day of dyads, I successfully worked through the material, making a few adjustments as we progressed to smooth out some kinks and increase efficiency of working through the stimuli. At the end of the evening of the first day of fielding, it felt great to accomplish the ambitious set of objectives and cover all the material with our respondents. However, as a moderator, I realized conducting this research required everything I had at my disposal, most notably a simultaneous laser-point focus on a myriad of issues. It left me mentally drained. On the flight to the West Coast, I worked through some analysis of the first day’s research, but quickly realized I needed some mental downtime after the previous day’s research. I read a book for pleasure and listened to some music to recharge a bit for the remainder of the flight. I thought that would be sufficient to get back to work once we landed. My plan was to order room service and then work on a topline report that was due by the end of that week. My colleague, however, proposed that after we checked into our West Coast hotel, I join her for a walk along the coast overlooking the ocean, followed by dinner at a beachside restaurant. This certainly presented a welcome alternative to spending the afternoon in my hotel room, but I was conflicted. How would I stay on track with meeting the Friday deadline if I took the afternoon off ? Ultimately, I took a chance, departed from my normal routine, and joined her. Here’s What I Learned from That Experience... The walk along the coast provided such a welcome reprieve from the sensory overload and hectic pace of airports and travel. It offered a beautiful panorama that was a feast for my weary eyes, worn out from looking at my laptop screen and our research materials. The vastness of the ocean, its rhythms and salty smell in the breeze, in addition to the feeling of sand on my bare feet, helped connect me to nature and the wonderful world I often miss when engulfed in my work world. Being surrounded by ocean, sky, and sand provided me with just the break I needed to step away from the work at hand and recharge my mind and reinvigorate my body. We enjoyed a relaxing dinner while continuing to take in the lovely ocean view. Dinner was very delicious, and the enjoyment was enhanced by the view, light personal conversation with my colleague, and lingering along the coast. I learned the benefits of pushing that reset button whi le on business travel far outweigh the potential downsides, and I highly encourage you to adopt this mindset, too! 26 CONNECTING. EDUCATING. ADVANCING. Pushing the Reset Button on Business Trips CONT INUED

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